When using information, there are some very important ethical considerations
you need to keep in mind. Works created by other people is rightfully
their intellectual property, and those who use those works are bound to
acknowledge that. Some of the most important considerations are copyright,
plagiarism, and citing.
What is Plagiarism?
Taking the ideas or copying the language of another writer without formal
acknowledgment is plagiarism.
Students who would never copy another student's exam answers may think
nothing of borrowing the ideas or wording from another author. Writers
must always document the ideas and information which are outside the realm
of common knowledge. For example, well known facts require no documentation,
while obscure facts would require documentation. When in doubt, it is
always better to err on the side of caution and document your sources.
Copyright laws strive to balance the interests of copyright owners and
users. A copyright owner has control or exclusive rights to prohibit users from
using a work in specific way without the owner's permission. A copyright owner
has the exclusive rights to control
distribution of their work
reproduction of their work
adaptation of their work
public performance of their work
public display of their work
It protects the copyright owner's monetary rights for a fixed period of timea
copyright owner has the right to profit from the sale or performance of a work.
The fixed period of time varies, depending on the work, before the work enters
Some works are in the public domain because they are not protected by copyright
law. However, simply because a work is in the public domain, does not mean that
the an individual can claim authorship of the work.
Varying protection dates
Copyright owners' rightsexcluding anonymous works and works for
hireare protected for a fixed period of time can be sumarized
any work published on or before December 31, 1922 is now in
the public domain
any work published between January 1, 1923 and December 31,
1978, is protected for a term of 95 years from the date of publication,
with the proper notice
if the work was published between 1923 and December 31, 1963, the copyright
owner may not have renewed the work and the original term of protection
(28 years) would now be expired and the work will be in the public domain
after 1978, a work is protected for 70 years from the date the author
dieslife of the author plus 70 yearsregardless of whether
or not the work was published
any work created before December 31, 1978, but never published, is protected
for the longer of life of the author plus 70 years or until December 31, 2002
Works that are not protected
Works that are not protected by copyright law include
Copyright laws do allow for limited uses of copyrighted materials, especially
if the use offers societal benefits. These limited uses are commonly referred
to as fair use.
Fair use is the legal right to copy a limited amount of copyrighted material
without obtaining permission or royalty payment,. Four criteria are considered
to determine if the use of a copyrighted work is fair
purpose and character of the use
nature of the work
amount of the work being used
effect on the market for the original work
Copying excerpts from books, periodicals, newspapers, and other works for purposes
of criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, or research is
generally considered to be fair use.
Purpose and character of the use
This refers to how the original work will be used
Is the use nonprofit or commercial?
Is the use transformativecommentary, parody. criticism, newsreporting?
Is the use educational?
Is it for personal use?
Nature of the work
This refers to the nature of the original work
Was the work published or unpublished?
Was the work more factual or more creative and imaginative?
Amount of the work being used
This refers to the amount of the portion used in relation to the entire
Is a small portion or a large portion of the original work being used?
Are key or significant elements or sections of the work being used?
Effect on the market for the original work
This addresses the effect of the use on the market for the original work
Is the original work available for sale?
Is the use widespread?
How long and often will the work be used?
Will the use affect the the copyright owner economicallyroyalties?
Plagiarism & Copyright
Be aware of the copyright laws that govern your research. Review these links
for additional help.
Citing your sources is key to avoiding plagiarism and to avoid violating
copyright laws. Providing references for sources you use also lends credibility
to your work, especially if you use authoritative sources.
If you quote or paraphrase the idea of another person in your research
paper or speech or any means, you must provide a proper citation for the
source in a bibliography or list of references. This gives credit to the
author and enables the reader to locate the resource you cited.
What is a Citation?
A citation is a reference to a source
of information. It should include enough identifying information, including
such information as the author, title, and source, so that a reader can locate
a copy of the item. Citations may reference any type of information. The most
book title, author, publisher, edition (if any), and year of publication.
magazine article citation
article title, magazine title, author, publication date, volume number
journal article citation
article title, journal title, author, publication date, volume and
issue numbers and page(s)
The order in which the citation elements are placed will depend on the
style manualthat you use.
The components of a book citation include
Magazine article citations
The components of a magazine article citation include
Journal article citations
The components of a journal article citation include
The writing style manual that your professor or program requests that
you use will demonstrate the rules for properly citing a work.
American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA),
and Turabian/Chicago are the most commonly used writing style manuals. It is
highly recommended that you purchase a manual, as you will likely use it a great
deal in your academic endeavours.
The Chicago Manual of Style.Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1993. Available in the Sherman Library at REF Z 253 .U69
A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 6th
ed. by Kate Turabian. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Available
in the Sherman Library at REF LB 2369 .T8 1996
Plagiarism: Yes or No?
Do you know plagiarism when you see it?
Take a look at the original quotation below and then take
a look at the two paragraphs that quote the original. Do either Paraphrase
I or Paraphrase II plagiarize the original quote? Why or why not?
In almost every college or university, the library is acknowledged
by faculty, students, and administrators as the 'heart of the campus.'
Yet on many college campuses, the potential of the library goes unrealized.
The library becomes an underutilized, expensive storehouse. Librarians
are seen as, or what is worse, perform as keepers of the books, or in
the words of a Cambridge University faculty member, 'warehouse managers.'
Consequently, library materials purchased to support the curriculum lie
unused on the shelves. Students who frequent the library often use it
as a study hall or as a convenient location for a social gathering. In
addition when students have a course assignment or research paper that
requires the use of library materials, they often perform poorly and spend
more time than necessary. The reason for such poor performance is that
most students do not have the necessary skills to effectively identify
and use appropriate library materials.
Stoffle, C. J. The library's role in facilitating quality teaching. (As
cited in Prentice Hall handbook for writers, 1995)
According to Stoffle (1995), the library is acknowledged
by students and faculty as the 'heart of the campus.' In spite of this,
the potential of the library goes unrealized. On most academic campuses,
the library serves as little more than an underutilized and costly storehouse.
Librarians are seen by library patrons as keepers of the books and 'warehouse
managers'. The result is that library materials purchased to support class
assignments lie unused on the shelves. Students use the library as a study
hall or as a convenient gathering place. Even more troubling, students
perform poorly when they have research assignments and spend more time
than necessary completing their research. Most students do not have the
necessary skills to effectively locate and use suitable library resources.
Although most academic institutions recognize that the library
is the 'heart of the campus', students on most college and university campuses
do not use libraries effectively or efficiently (Stoffle, 1995). Many students
think of libraries as nothing more than warehouses for books and librarians
as simply the custodians of the books. Library resources are not being utilized
for class assignments and research while the library building, more often than
not, is used as a handy location for students to study or meet. Even more troubling,
students who do try to use the library to do their research do not know how
to use the library effectively. The problem is that most students do not have
the necessary research and library skills necessary to efficiently locate and
use suitable library resources.
Correct Answer:No - both responses are correct. Refer to the APA Manual,
6th Edition, Section 6.01, pages 170-171 for a detailed explanantion on plagiarism.