How to Cite Sources: APA Style

Printable version


Introduction | Books | Periodicals | Electronic Sources | Dissertations, Theses & Practicums | Government Reports
ERIC ED Documents | Proceedings | Legal Materials | Other Resources   |   APA 2007 Style Guide

Tip   You can use bibliography management software to help format and manage citations. NSU provides NSU students, faculty and staff with free access to EndNote, ProCite and Reference Manager. Learn more. An online tutorial is available for EndNote.

 

Introduction

Why cite?

The purpose of citing sources is to give credit to the author for any ideas or quotations that you use, and to enable your reader to locate the sources.


How to cite?

Step 1. Decide what type of resource you are using: a book? a web site? a magazine? an interview?

Step 2. Find the example in this brochure, or look it up in the APA manual.

Step 3.
Write your citation, following the appropriate examples. Use the proper punctuation; but remember, your source might not have all of the parts listed in the guidelines and examples.


Important note

APA style requires that the text of a paper and the references list must be double-spaced. Please consult academic programs or instructors to determine if they use a modified version of the APA style.

APA Manual

The most common types of sources are listed in this section, but for explanations and examples of other types of sources, please ask your instructor, or refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). The call number for this book is: BF76.7 .P83 2001.

Books

General notes about books: If name(s) are the first part of the citation, they are capitalized and listed— last name, then initials. Separate names with a comma, and use an ampersand (&) before the last author. Use Ed. for one editor, Eds. for multiple editors. Capitalize the first word in titles and subtitles, and proper names. Place of publication should include the city name and two letter state abbreviation unless it is a major city as listed on page 176 (APA Publication Manual). If you are citing a book chapter or section you must indicate the pages. Use p. for a single page and pp. for multiple pages. Put a space after the p. and put a - (dash) between the numbers.

Book by a single author.
Author's name. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Chitty, D. (2003). Do lemmings commit suicide?Beautiful hypotheses and ugly facts.
  New York: Oxford University Press.

Book by two or more authors.
Author's names. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Rosellini, G., & Worden, M. (2004). Of course you're angry: A guide to
  dealing with the emotions of substance abuse (Rev. ed.).
  Center City, MN: Hazelden.

Book by a corporate author.
Corporate author. (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Children's Express. (1999). Voices from the future: Our children tell us
  about violence in America. New York: Crown.

Book by an unknown author.
Title of book. (Year). Place of publication: Publisher.

The Koran. (1974). New York: Crescent Books.

Book with editors.
Editor's name. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Moen, P., Elder, G., & Luscher, K. (Eds.). (1995). Examining lives in
  context: Perspectives on the ecology of human development.
  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword.
Author of section being cited. (Year). Name of section. In author of book, Title of book (p. or pp. page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.Take note: The section author is listed differently than the author(s) of the whole book.

Jeffrey, I. (2002). Introduction. In B. Savelev, Secret city: Photographs
  from Peru (pp. 8-12). New York: Thames and Hudson.

Edition other than the first.
Author's name. (Year). Title of book (Number of edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Hoff, R. (1992). I can see you naked : A new revised edition of the
  national bestseller on making fearless presentations (New rev. ed.).
  Kansas City, MO: Andrews and McMeel.

Pasachoff, J. (1999). Field guide to the stars and planets (3rd ed.). boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Work in an anthology.
Author's name. (Year). Title of selection. In Editor’s name (Ed.), Title of anthology (Vol. volume number if appropriate, pp. page numbers of selection). Place of publication: Publisher.

Updike, J. (2004). Reading Trends. In M. Meyer (Ed.), The Bedford introduction
  to literature: Reading, thinking and writing (pp.487-491).
      Boston: St. Martin’s Press.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry.
Author's name. (Year). Entry heading or title. In Title of anthology (Vol. volume number, then if appropriate, pp. page#s). Place of publication: Publisher.

Tavris, C. (1989). Queen bee syndrome. In Women’s studies encyclopedia
  (Vol. 1, p. 307). New York: Greenwood Press.

Eschatology. (1982). In Webster’s new world dictionary of the
  American language (2nd ed.). New York: Simon and Schuster.

Multivolume work.
Author's name. (Year). Title of multivolume work (Vol. volume number-s). Place of publication: Publisher.

Schlager, N. (Ed.). (2000-2004). How products are made: An
   illustrated guide to product manufacturing (Vols. 1-4).
   Detroit, MI: Gale Research..

Mills, L. (1996). Architecture of the Old South (Vols. 1-2). Savannah,
  GA: Beehive Foundation.

Back to top

Periodicals

General notes about periodicals: Names are listed last name, then initials, if name(s) is the first element of the citation. Separate names with a comma, and an ampersand (&) before the last author. If there is no author, then the title of the article is first.

Dates – Daily newspapers & newsletters: Use (Year, Month Day). Monthly newspapers & magazines with no volume number: Use (Year, Month). Journals: Use (Year)
Titles – Article titles: capitalize first word in titles and subtitles, and any proper names.
Journal titles – Capitalize all words except articles and prepositions
Issue numbers – Include if paginated by issue
Pages – Newspapers: use p. for one page, pp. for two or more pages. Magazines & journals: do not use p. or pp. before page numbers.

Article in a journal or magazine with volume number and continuous pagination. Author's name. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal or journal, volume number, page numbers. The issue number is not included if all the issues in the volume have continuous pagination that continue through all the issues of the volume.

The issue number is not included if all the issues in a volume have continuous pagination that contines through all the issues of the volume.

Watson, J. D., & Crick, F. H. (1953). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid.
  Nature, 171, 737-738.

Jasper, W. F. (2004). Good cop, bad cop: Alarming expansion and bad police.
  work define today’s FBI. The New American, 13, 234-239.

Article in a journal or magazine paginated by issue.
Author's name. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number(issue number—only if issue starts with page 1 rather than continuously paginated through all issues), page numbers.

Jones, H. M. (2002). The attractions of stupidity. The St. Croix Review,
  30(2), 6-10.

Gerry, R.. (2000, April-June). Tempo training for freestyle. Swimming
  Technique, 34, 40-42.

Article in a daily newspaper.
Author's name. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of newspaper, p. page#.

Munsey, C., & Shuey, P. J. (1997, May 8). Bomb threats to become felony.
  The Capital, p. A1.

Editorial in a newspaper.
Author's name. (Year, Month Day). Title of article [Editorial]. Title of newspaper, p. page#.

Krauthammer, C. (2004, April 25). Why feed a mortal enemy?
  [Editorial]. The Washington Post, p. A27.

Unsigned article in a newspaper or magazine.
Title of article. (Year, Month Day). Title of newspaper or magazine, p. page#.

Student health insurance policy. (2004, May 23). Anne Arundel College
  Campus Crier, p. 1.

Review of a book or film.
Reviewer's name. (Year). Title of Review [Review of the book/film Title of book or movie]. Title of magazine, volume number (include the issue number if the journal is paginated by issue), page#.

Wrathall, J. (1997). [Review of the film That thing you do!].
  Sight and Sound, 7, 57.

Reviewer's name. (Year, Month Day). Title of review [Review of the book/film Title of book or movie]. Title of newspaper, p. page#.

Maslin, J. (2001, December 11). Shakespeare saw a therapist?
  [Review of the movie Shakespeare in love]. The New York Times, p. E16.

Back to top

Electronic Sources

Due to space constraints, the citations in this handout are not double-spaced; however, APA style requires that the text of the paper and the references list must be double-spaced. Please consult academic programs or instructors to determine if they use a modified version of the APA style. For example, the Fischler School of Education and Human Services does state in its style guide that citations should be single spaced, but there should be a double space between citations.

APA Manual and Recent Updates

The most common types of sources are listed in this section, but for explanations and examples of other types of sources, please ask your instructor, or refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). APA published the APA Style Guide to Electronic References in 2007 that provided information about the formatting of a number of online resources. The examples provided here use the most recent recommendations provided for specific types of citations.

Periodicals

General notes about periodical articles and documents: Names are listed last name, then initials, if name(s) is the first element of the citation. Separate names with a comma, and an ampersand (&) before the last author. If there is no author, then the title of the article is first.

Dates– Daily newspapers & newsletters: Use (Year, Month Day). Monthly newspapers & magazines with no volume number: Use (Year, Month). Journals: Use (Year)

Titles– Article titles: capitalize first word in titles and subtitles, and any proper names.

Journal titles– Capitalize all words except articles and prepositions

Issue numbers and volume numbers – According to the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007), the volume number and issue number should always be included “regardless of whether the journal is paginated separately by issue or continuously by volume” (APA, p. 2).

Pages– Newspapers: use p. for one page, pp. for two or more pages.  Magazines & Journals: Do not use p. or pp. before page numbers.  

Article in a journal or magazine. See APA manual, 5th ed.
Author's name. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal or journal, volume number(issue number), page numbers.
The issue number is always included even if the issues in the volume have pagination that continue through all the issues of the volume. This rule was changed in 2007 with the APA Style Guide to Electronic References. Retrieval statements are only included if that information is needed because there is only limited access to the resource, and it might be difficult to locate.

Jasper, W. F. (2006). Good cop, bad cop: Alarming expansion and bad police work define today’s FBI.
  The New American, 13(5), 234-239.

- Ex: Journal article with DOI assigned. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 7 #1)

Gerry, R.. (2000, April-June). Tempo training for freestyle. Swimming Technique, 34(1), 40-42.
  doi:10.1022/0202-9822.77.4.444

- Ex: Journal article with no DOI assigned. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 7-8, #2)

Jones, H. M. (2005). The attractions of stupidity. The St. Croix e-Review, 30(2), 6-10.  Retrieved
  from http://st_croix_e-review.com/index.php/articles/view/30/6/

- Ex: Preprint version of journal article with DOI assigned. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 8, #3)

Cox, C. (2006). An analysis of the impact of federated search products on library instruction using the
  ACRL standards. Portal: Libraries and the academy, 6(3), 253-267. Advance online
  publication. Retrieved July 23, 2007. doi:10.1212/s00222-009-0987-6

- Ex: In-press article from institutional or personal Web site. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 8-9, #4)

Watson, J. D., & Jones, F. H. (in press). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature. Retrieved
  August 2, 2007, from http://www.nsu.fl.edu/DNA/draft_pubs/12345678.pdf

            - If the article is a draft or if it has been submitted to a journal for review but not
              been reviewed, then do not provide the name of the journal.

- Ex: In-press article from institutional or personal Web site. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 8-9, #4)

Watson, J. D., & Jones, F. H. (in press). A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature. Retrieved
  August 2, 2007, from http://www.nature.com/DNA/volume22/12345678.pdf

- Ex: Journal article retrieved from difficult source to locate online

Jennings, B. (1913). Lessons learned in the trenches: The experiences of an urban middle
  principal. Leadership, 4,(3), 12. Retrieved from JSTOR database.

 

Aggregated databases. The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001) said to use a retrieval statement for resources retrieved from an aggregated database. However, the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 2, 10) changed this:

  1. Use the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) to journal articles and other documents when available.
  2. The retrieval date is now only included if the content being cited is likely to be changed or updated.
  3. If you are using the archival copy or version of the record, include the source location if the content you are referencing is (1) available only in an electronic format or (2) is difficult to locate in print.

- Ex: Journal article with DOI assigned. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 7 #1)

Getweed, R.-J., Jr. (2007).  Information literacy for distance students. Journal of Library Administration,
  34(1), 40-42. doi:10.1022/0202-9822.77.4.444

- Ex.: Newsletter article – See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 21 #41)

Mattel, J. (2004, Spring). Upward mobility. Portals of the World: Newsletter of the Florida Virtual
  University, 1(2). Retrieved from http://wwww.fvu.edu/portalsoftheworld/newsletter0102/
  Spring2004.pdf


- Ex.: Book chapter –
See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 10 #7)

Price, J. (1934). Bret Easton Ellis: Overview. In S. W. Brown (Ed.), Contemporary novelists (6th
  ed.). New York: St. James. Retrieved from Literature Resource Center database.


- Ex.: Entire Book  --
See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 10 #6)

Freud, S. (1911). The interpretation of dreams (3rd ed.). (A. A. Brill, Trans.). Available from
  http://psychwww.com/books/interp/toc.htm

Web site–Web document similar to a print document. See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Cite as you would a printed source, followed by a retrieval statement that includes date of access and the name of the database. Start it with the word Retrieved and end with the Internet address. E.g.:  Retrieved [Month day, year], from [Internet address/URL]

Adams, R. G. (1937). Librarians as enemies of books. In D. Seaman (Ed.), The electronic text
  center. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia. Retrieved January 7, 2002, from
  http://www.etext.lib.virginia.edu/modengA.html

Web site–Web document without a print document counterpart. See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Cite as you would a printed source, followed by a retrieval statement that includes date of access and the Internet address. Authors’ names (if any) are listed first, as for other resources (look for a corporate author if you can’t find author names.) If you cannot find a title, you will have to provide a description of the content in brackets instead.

Last Name, Initials. (Date of electronic publication or update). Title of the document [or Description
  of content]. Retrieved [Month day, year], from [Internet address/URL]

Tanner Computer Services. (2003, July 7). The world famous hot dog page. Retrieved January 7,
  2004, from http://www.xroads.com/~tcs/hotdog/hotdog.html

Kuo, H. (2006, October 14). [Home page]. Retrieved January 14, 2007, from
  http://www.edu/nlhome/g012/kuox0019/

Web site–magazine, journal or newspaper article. See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).  
Cite as you would a printed source, followed by a retrieval statement that includes date of access and the Internet address or URL of the article. Start it with the word Retrieved and end with the Internet address/URL.   E.g.:  Retrieved [Month day, year], from [http://…]

Reed, M. L. (2000). Algebraic structure of genetic inheritance. Bulletin of the American
  Mathematical Society, 34, 107-130. Retrieved January 8, 2002, from
  http://www.ams.org/bull/1997-34-02

- Ex.: No page numbers for online article. See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

Rosenberg, S. (1999, June 2). What is to be done about Microsoft? Salon. Retrieved January
  10, 2002, from http://www.salon.com/tech/col/rose/1999/06/02
  /microsoft_breakup/index.html

Document available on university program or department Web site, no date. See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association(5th ed.).
Author. (Year, or use n.d. if no date). Title of Web document. Retrieved [Month day, year],
  from [Institution Name, program or department] Web site: [URL]

Colman, W. C. (n.d.). Comparisons of grade point averages between men who join fraternities and
  men who do not join fraternities at Shady Rock University. Retrieved April 14, 2004,
  from Nova Southeastern University, Programs for Higher Education Web site:
  http://www.nova.edu/phe/phe_resources/online_documents.htm

Computer programs, software, and programming languages. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 17 #29). Software programs like Word, PowerPoint, SPSS, SAS, Java, Photoshop, and Adobe Acrobat that are considered standard, off-the-shelf software do not need reference entries. However, you do need to provide reference entries for specialized software or computer programs with limited distribution. Author. (Date). Title of Software or Computer Program (Version no.) [Any identifier]. City, state: Publisher. Retrieved Month day, year. Available from URL

Jones, D. F. (2002). The Mental Measurement Tester (Version 3.2) [Computer software].
  Fort Lauderdale, FL: Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
  Available from http://www.buros.com/

  1. The name of the software is not italicized, and the important words are capitalized.
  2. The type of resource is identified in brackets.
  3. The information about how to obtain this software of computer program of limited distribution is provided with retrieval date and statement that starts with Available from http://...

 

Dissertations, Theses, and Practicums

Dissertations done by students attending Nova before 1994 are from Nova University rather than Nova Southeastern University. If a page number is used in the citation, the number will always be immediately followed by an A or a B series letter with no spaces (see the examples below).

Doctoral dissertation retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database . See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 10-11 #8)
Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation. Retrieved from Dissertations and
  Theses database. (AAT xxxxxxx)

Johnson, S. (2004). Financial variables and merger premiums: Evidence from bank mergers.
  Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database.(AAT 3025476)
  1. Notice that the title of the dissertation is italicized.
  2. A retrieval statement is included with the name of the Dissertations and Theses database because that is the only place this dissertation can be retrieved online.
  3. The accession number is included in parentheses after the retrieval statement if one has been assigned.  Note that there is no period included after the parentheses.

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained from UMI in print or microfiche. See APA manual, 5th ed.

Author. (Year). Title of publication. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number (issue#),
  page#series. (UMI No. xxxxxxxx)
 
-Ex.: Dissertation from Nova Southeastern University.

Cannon, C. (2004). Does moral education increase moral development? A reexamination of
  the moral reasoning abilities of working adult learners. Dissertation Abstracts International,
  61(12), 4851A. (UMI No. 9999321)

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained in print from Nova Southeastern University. 

Author. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation, name of institution, year of the dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number (issue#), page#series number.

Bi, W. (2001). Knowledge discovery by attribute-oriented approach under directed acyclic
  concept graph (DACG) (Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, 2001).
  Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (11), 5195B.

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained at another university.  See Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

Johnson, D. (2003). Designing bibliographic instruction online and face to face (Doctoral
  dissertation, University of Central Ohio, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts International,
  62(8), 4672A.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation retrieved from institutional or personal Web site. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 11 #9)

Author. (Year). Title of dissertation. Doctoral dissertation, institution, date of completion.
  Note: Dissertations before 1994 are from Nova University rather than
  Nova Southeastern University.

Bernardi, R. A. (1990). Accounting pronouncements, firm size, and firm industry: Their
  effect on Altman's bankruptcy prediction model. (Doctoral dissertation,
  Nova University, 1990). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/~bernadi/dissertation.pdf

Patterson, G. W. (2003). A comparison of multi-year instructional programs (looping) and
  regular education program utilizing scale scores in reading. (Doctoral dissertation,
  University of Florida, 2003). Retrieved from http://www.uf.edu/~asb/thesis/

Doctoral practicum indexed in ERIC

Sanford, C. A. (1997). Working from within the classroom: Improving the delivery of speech-language
  services to kindergarten at-risk students. Doctoral practicum, Nova Southeastern
  University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  ED420967)

  1. The name of the dissertation is italicized.
  2. The type of dissertation or thesis is identified, the name of the institution, and year of completion is listed in parentheses.
  3. The ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. is listed in parentheses and not followed by a period. See p. 257 #43 for the only example of an ERIC document in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

Doctoral applied dissertation available on university program or department Web site, no date. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 11 #9)
Author. (n.d. if no date, otherwise Year). Title of dissertation. Doctoral name of document type,
  institution, year of completion. Retrieved from [URL]

Matlak, K. L. (n.d.). Outcomes evaluation of the Technology Property Initiative at Collin County
  Community College. (Doctoral applied dissertation, Nova Southeastern University). Retrieved
  http://www.nova.edu/phe/phe_resources/online_documents.htm

 

Gray Literature

The APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007) defines gray literature as scientific, scholarly information that is not peer reviewed. Documents that fall into this category include reports by government agencies, corporations, trade groups, research institutions, professional organizations, and other for-profit and not-for-profit organizations including advocacy groups and think tanks.

Government publications -- print or archival copies that are easy to locate and obtain.
Author. (Year). Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher.

- Note: The author is listed first, as in Last name, Initials. If you cannot find an author, treat the government department, office, agency, or institute that produced the report as the corporate author. If the report number is given, insert it in parentheses after the title. If the organization that produced the report is not well known, precede its name with the name of the organization of which it is a part.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1995). Correctional Statistics in the U.S., 1992.  Washington, DC: Author.

Ex.: Technical or research report  APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, p. 20 #36)

Young, F. D., Jones, R., & Sampson, M. (2006). Correctional populations of the United States, 2002.
  (Report No. ACRL223312). Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics: http://www.bjs.gov
  /pubs2006/2006ACRL223312.pdf

Report available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) with a government institute as group author.
Author. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Location: Publisher or agency.

U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Data sources on lifelong learning available from the National
  Center for Education Statistics (GPO No: ED 1.310/2/:431892). Washington, DC: Author.

- Note that it is DC without periods like state abbreviations, but U.S. uses the periods.

Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC).
Author. (Year). Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document
  Reproduction Service No. ED######).

Schafer, L. L. (1999). Data sources on lifelong learning available from the National Center for Education
  Statistics. Work paper series (NCES-WP-1999-11). Washington, DC: National Center for
  Education Statistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED431892)

- See p. 257 #43 for the only example of an ERIC document in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

Government report not available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) or a document depository like ERIC or NTIS.
Author. (Year). Title of publication (Report letters/numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Health, Services, and Human Services Division, General Accounting Office. (1998). Suicide
  prevention: Efforts to increase research and education in palliative care. Report to
  congressional requesters (GAO/HEHS-98-128). Washington, DC: General Accounting Office.

Electronic version of U.S. government report available online. See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).
Author. (Year). Title of publication (Report letters/numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.
  Use a retrieval statement that includes a date of access. Retrieved Month day, year,
  from name of agency via Database Name: URL


Lewis, L., & Farris, E. (1996). Remedial education at higher education institutions in fall 1995 (GPO
  No: ED 1.328/5:R 28). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education. Retrieved
  from General Accounting Office Reports online via GPO Access: http://www.access
  .gpo.gov/su_docs /aces/aces160.shtml?/gao/index.html

U.S. government report available on government agency Web site.
Name of agency. (Year). Title of document (Report number). Retrieved Month day, year, from URL

National Center for Higher Education. (2002). Statistical analysis report: Higher education (NCES
  97-584). Retrieved June 22, 2004, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/97584.html

Educational Resources Information Center) documents with ED accession numbers are usually but not always unpublished resources. If they are unpublished, you include the ED number in the citation. Give the ERIC number in parentheses at the end of the entry unless the document was obtained full-text online. In that case, the retrieval statement is last.

In cases of publications of limited circulation, the name and address of the publisher should be included in parentheses after the title and before the ERIC ED number. See p. 257 #43 for the only example of an ERIC document in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).

ERIC Document retrieved from the ERIC Web site.
Author. (Year). Title of document. Place of Publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document
  Reproduction Service No. ED######)

Griffin, D. (1999, August). Initial findings on the benchmarks pilot project at Nova Southeastern
  University undergraduate education program. Paper presented at the Association of Teacher
  Educators Summer Conference, San Antonio, TX. (ERIC Document Reproduction
  Service No. ED 4345595)

ERIC digest retrieved full-text in ERIC.

Author. (Year). Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
  No. ED######) Retrieved Month day, year, from Database Name database.

McKay, K., & Sorenson, B. (1999). How to use ERIC to search your special education topic: Update
  1999. ERIC Digest E573. Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted
  Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 434456)

Unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved from a Web site.
Cite as you would a conference paper that was not published, followed by a retrieval statement that includes date of access. E.g.:  Retrieved from Web site starting with http://…

Clay, D. (2002, April). WWW.2CHEAT.COM. Paper contributed to the Teaching in the
  Community Colleges Online Conference (3rd), Honolulu, HI. (ERIC Document
  Reproduction Service No. ED450824) Retrieved from  http://leahi.kcc.hawaii
  .edu/org/tcom98/rooks.html

Unpublished doctoral practicum indexed in ERIC and retrieved online.
Author. (Year). Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, institution, location. (ERIC
  Document Reproduction Service No. ED######). Include retrieval statement.

Green, G. F. (2005). Working in the classroom to balance intellectual and emotional needs of at-risk
  students. Unpublished doctoral practicum, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale,
  FL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED691124)

  1. This practicum is readily available through the ERIC Document Reproduction Service microfiche collection and via the Internet in a PDF format so it does not need a retrieval statement. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 1-3).

ERIC document with limited circulation information.

Author. (Year of publication.) If no author, title of document first [Medium].
  (Year of publication if no author.)(Name and mailing address for obtaining
  the publication. A Web address can be used in place of or in addition to
  address.)(ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED######)

Enhancing education through technology: New tools to close the achievement gap. Satellite town
  meeting #79: May 15, 2003. [Videotape]. (2004). (Available from ED Pubs, P.O. Box
  1398, Jessup, MD, 20794-1398) (ERIC Document Reproduction No. ED435672)

Education Development Center. (2004). Districts on the move: Unified student service in Boston
  public schools: Building a continuum of services through standards-based reform.
  (National Institute for Urban School Improvement, Education Development Center, Inc.,
  55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA, 02458.) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  ED455329)

Government report indexed in ERIC.
Author. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher or agency of publication.
  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED######)

Hoffman, L. M. (2001). Key statistics on public elementary and secondary schools and agencies: School year
  1997-98. Survey report (NCES-2001-304R). Washington, DC: National Center for
  Education Statistics. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED452279)

Conference Proceedings

Published conference paper in conference proceedings.
Author. (Year,). Title of paper. In Editor (first initial, last name) (Ed.)
  Title of conference proceedings (page numbers).
  Place of publication: Publisher.

Gibson, C. C. (2005). In S. Allsop (Ed.) Impact of the larger social context on the distance.
  International Council for Distance Education: One world many voices: Quality in open and
  distance learning (pp. 279-282). Chicago: Milton Keynes.

Unpublished conference paper.
Author. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at name of conference,
  city, state (two-letter postal abbreviation).

Martins, J. R. (2004, April). Working with the terminally ill: An integrated theoretical model. Paper
  presented at the American Counseling Association World Conference, San Diego, CA.

Unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved online. Author. (Year, Month). Title of paper. Paper presented at the [Conference Name], city, state code.  Include ERIC ED number if indexed in ERIC. However, if this document can be located easily and is not a document of limited circulation, then a retrieval statement with the name of the database is not needed. See APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 1-3)

Kelly, J. (2003, March). Effects of traditional and professional development school preservice training
  models on teacher attrition after three years. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of
  the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. ERIC Document Reproduction
  Service No. ED408256). Retrieved June 22, 2007, from ERIC database.

Conference paper presented at a virtual conference.
Author. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at the Conference Name. Retrieved date of access, from URL [There is no geographic location, page#, or month with year of publication.]

Steinbrecker, D. (2002). The care and feeding of an online instructional site. Paper presented at the
  Distance Education virtual conference. Retrieved July 14, 2007,
  from http://www.umuc.au/conference/disted/care.html

Other Resources

Interview–conducted by the researcher.  Interviews are personal communications, which are only cited in the text of the paper, not in the reference list. APA does not recommend including personal communications because of the difficulty of recovering them at a later time.

Film or video recording.
Name of the producer (Producer), & Name of the director (Director). (Year of release).
  Title [Medium]. Distributor.

Jarre, K., Carr, P. (Producers), & Sommers, S. (Director). (2004). The mummy [Videotape].
  MCA Universal Home Video.

Television program–broadcast.
Producer’s name (Producer). (Broadcast date). Title of the program [Television program]. Station or viewing location: name of the station or network.

Garwood, S. (Producer). (1998, December 31). EastEnders [Television program]. Clarksville,
  MD: BBC America.

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication but not yet accepted.
Author. (Year). Title of document. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Lucio, L. & Tuñón, J. T. (2001). Designing library instruction for international online students.
  Manuscript submitted for publication.

Online Communities

Online communities include a variety of options for people on the Internet to communicate on a variety of topics of interest. This may include Weblogs or blogs, newsgroups, online forums, and discussion groups.

Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group. APA does not recommend including personal communications, including private email messages, because of the difficulty of recovering them at a later time. The APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 23-24 #47) does provide a format for messages posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group. Electronic mailing list is the appropriate generic term for LISTSERVS since this is a trademarked name for a particular software application.
Author or screen name. (Year, Month day). Subject line of message [Any identifier]. Message posted to Internet address/URL, archived at address of archived version of message.

Johnson, D. F. (2002, April 3). Problems accessing information [Msg 2]. Message posted to
  news://sci.psychology.hypnosis/, archived at http://groups/google.com/group/sci.psyc
  .hyposis/

  1. Provide author(s)’ last name followed by initials or screen name if that is all that is available.
  2. Use the exact date that the message was posted.
  3. The subject line of the message should not be italicized. Any identifiers go in brackets after the title.
  4. The URL used should be the address for the archived version of the message.

Video Weblog post.  See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2007, pp. 23-24 #50)

Author or screen name. (Year, Month day). Subject line of message [Id]. Video posted to URL.

Ramdial, S. F. (2007, August 3). The IRB process [Video file]. Video posted to
  http://www.you_tube.com/group/watch?v=Xkas43nsu_IRB

  1. The title of the video is not italicized.
  2. Description of the type of document is included in square brackets to aid in document identification and retrieval.


Legal Materials

Court decisions.  In the text of the document, cite the name of the case (in italics) and the year of the decision. If more than one year is given, cite all years. For more information about how to cite legal references, consult the most recent edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. (KF245 .B58)
Common abbreviations:

Cong.              U.S. Congress
H.R.                House of Representatives
S.                     Senate
Reg.                 Regulation
Res.                 Resolution
F.                     Federal Reporter
F.2d                 Federal Reporter, Second Series
F. Supp.           Federal Supplement
U.S.C.             United States Code
Cong. Rec.      Congressional Record
Fed. Reg.        Federal Register

Case.
Name v. Name, Volume, Source Page (Court Date).

Wienhorst v. Stonebraker, 356 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1988).

- Ex.: Appealed case where decision was affirmed.
Check the Bluebook for the proper forms to signal the various stages in a case’s history.

Hoeferkamp v. Bischoff, 471 F. Supp. 211 (D. Kan. 1988), aff’d, 727 F.2d 777 (9th Cir. 1992).

- Ex.: Unpublished case.
To cite to a particular page of a slip opinion (an opinion that was not published in a case reporter but is separately printed) use the format: slip op. at [page number]. You may also cite unreported cases found in electronic databases such as LexisNexis Academic or Westlaw rather than citing them as slip opinions.

McDougall v. Riggs, No. 88-2109 (3rd Cir. March 8, 1949).

- Ex.: Unreported decision found in LEXIS with record number.
The name of the database and the record number is included along with sufficient information for others to find the case. The screen page numbers are preceded by an asterisk to differentiate between them and the page number of the slip opinion. Any paragraph numbers assigned are preceded by a paragraph symbol.

Hemphill v. Bodart Corp., No. 77-9234, 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12223, at *2 (E.D. Pa May 23, 2004).

 

Legislative Materials

 - Ex.: Federal testimony.

Stem cell research: The pros and cons of cloning: Hearings before the Subcommittee on
  Bioethics, of the House Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, 110th
  Cong., 35 (2000) (testimony of Carey Hunt).

- Ex.: Unenacted federal bills and resolutions.
Title [if relevant], bill or resolution number, xxx Cong., (Year). The version in the House of Representatives has H.R. and the bill number while the version of the bill in the Senate has S.

Small Farm Reimbursement Act of 2000, H.R. 2063, 110th Cong. (2000).

Small Farm Reimbursement Act of 2000, S. 452, 110th Cong. (2000).

- Ex.: Enacted federal bills and resolutions.
xx Res. xxx, xxx Cong., Volume Source Page (Year) (enacted).

S. Res. 167, 110th Cong., 127 Cong. Rec. 3432 (2004) (enacted).

Administrative and Executive Materials.
       Use The Bluebook’s Rule 14 – see next examples:
-Ex.: Federal Regulation.
Title/Number, Volume Source § xxx (Year).

Federal Small Business Regulations for Acquisitions by the National Parks Administration,
  55 Fed. Reg. 66,343 (Jan. 11, 2004)–to be codified at 66 C.F.R. pt. 1).

-Ex.: Executive Order.


Exec. Order No. xxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year).

Executive Order No. 22,432 6 C.F.R. 771 (1991-1995), reprinted as amended in 6 U.S.C. 301
  app. at 5-5-09 (2002).


Patents.
Include the inventor or inventors to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Borwin, G. F. (1998). U.S. Patent No. 178,323. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark
  Office.

 

Back to top

Dissertations, Theses, & Practicums

Note: Dissertations done by students attending Nova before 1994 are from Nova University rather than Nova Southeastern University. Also, if a page number is used in the citation, the number will always be immediately followed by an A or a B series letter with no spaces. (Look at the examples below that show page#series.)

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained from UMI via the Digital Dissertations database.
Author last name, first initial. (Year). Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number (issue#), page#series. Retrieved Month day, year, from Digital Dissertations database.

Johnson, S. (2001). Financial variables and merger premiums: Evidence from bank mergers
  Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (9), 3134A. (UMI No. AAT 3025476) Retrieved June
  22, 2002, from Digital Dissertations database.

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained from UMI in print. Author. (Year). Title of publication. Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number (issue#), page#series. (UMI No. xxxxxxxx)

-Ex.: Dissertation from Nova Southeastern University.

Cannon, C. (2004). Does moral education increase moral development? A reexamination of
  the moral reasoning abilities of working adult learners. Dissertation Abstracts
  International, 61 (12), 4851A. (UMI No. AAT 9999321)

- Ex.: Dissertation from University of Texas at Austin.

Garza, N. R. (1994). A description and analysis of selected successful developmental reading
  programs in Texas communities colleges. Dissertation Abstracts International, 55 (6).
  1433A. (UMI No. AAT 9428519)

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained in print from Nova Southeastern University. Author. (Year). Title of dissertation (Doctoral dissertation, name of institution, year of the dissertation). Dissertation Abstracts International, volume number (issue#), page#series number.

Bi, W. (2001). Knowledge discovery by attribute-oriented approach under directed acyclic
  concept graph (DACG) (Doctoral dissertation, Nova Southeastern University, 2001).
  Dissertation Abstracts International, 62 (11), 5195B.

Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI) and obtained at that university.
See format in previous example.

Johnson, D. (2003). Designing bibliographic instruction online and face to face (Doctoral
  dissertation, University of Central Ohio, 2002). Dissertation Abstracts
  International, 62 (8), 4672A.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Author. (Year). Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, institution, location. Note: Dissertations before 1994 are from Nova University rather than Nova Southeastern University.

Bernardi, R. A. (1990). Accounting pronouncements, firm size, and firm industry: Their
  effect on Altman's bankruptcy prediction model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
  Nova University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.


Patterson, G. W. (2003). A comparison of multi-year instructional programs (looping) and
  regular education program utilizing scale scores in reading. Unpublished doctoral
  dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Unpublished doctoral practicum indexed in ERIC and retrieved online.
See previous example. Include retrieval statement, e.g.: Retrieved Month day, year, from Database Name database

Sanford, C. A. (1997). Working from within the classroom: Improving the delivery of speech-language
  services to kindergarten at-risk students. Unpublished doctoral practicum, Nova
  Southeastern University, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. (ERIC Document Reproduction
  Service No. ED420967) Retrieved December 21, 2001, from ERIC Database.

Unpublished doctoral applied dissertation available on university program or department Web site, no date.
Author. (n.d. if no date, otherwise Year). Title of dissertation. Unpublished doctoral name of document type, institution, city, state unless city name is also in name of institution. Retrieved date of access, from institution, department or program Web site: URL

Matlak, K. L. (n.d.). Outcomes evaluation of the Technology Property Initiative at Collin County
  Community College. Unpublished doctoral applied dissertation, Nova Southeastern
  University, Fort Lauderdale, FL. Retrieved May 11, 2002, from Nova Southeastern
  University, Programs for Higher Education Web site: http://www.nova.edu/phe/
  phe_resources/ online_documents.htm

Unpublished doctoral MARP.
Author. (Year). Title of document. Unpublished doctoral document name, name of institution, place.
Note: If this is indexed in ERIC, you also need the ERIC ED number. If you obtain it full text online, you also need the retrieval statement that includes the date of access. See the next example.

Digby, K. E. (1985). A comparison of the characteristics of successful and non-successful
  associate degreenursing students. Unpublished doctoral major applied
  research project, Nova University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

Unpublished master’s research project indexed in ERIC and retrieved online.
Author. (Year). Title of project. Unpublished master’s type of document, name of institution, place. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED######) Retrieved Month, day, year, from Database Name database.

Brown, M. (2004). Increasing participation of female students in physical science class. Unpublished
  master's action research project, St. Xavier University, Smithtown, IL.
  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED455121)
  Retrieved December 24, 2004, from ERIC database.

Back to top

Government Reports

Government publications.

Treat the government department, office, agency, or institute that produced the report as the author. If the organization that produced the report is not well known, precede with the higher organization. (Year). Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher.

U.S. Department of Justice. (1995). Correctional populations of the United
  States,1992. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Report available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) with a government institute as group author. Author. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Location: Publisher or agency.

Shafer, L. (1999). Data sources on lifelong learning available from the
  National Center for Education Statistics
  (GPO No: ED 1.310/2/:431892). Washington, DC:
  U.S. Department of Education.

Report available from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Author. (Year). Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher.  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDnumber)

Schafer, L. L. (1999). Data sources on lifelong learning available from the National
  Center for Education Statistics. Work paper series (NCES-WP-1999-11).
  Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. (ERIC Document
  Reproduction Service No. ED431892)

[Note: This record was located in ERIC.  The previous citation was for the very same resource but the information was located in the GPO database. Note the similarity in the ED and GPO numbers.]

Government report not available from the Government Printing Office (GPO) or a document depository like ERIC or NTIS. Author (or treat the government department, office, agency, or institute that produced the report as corporate author. If the organization that produced the report is not well known, precede with the higher organization).  (Year). Title of publication (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher.

Health, Services, and Human Services Division, General Accounting Office. (1998).
  Suicide prevention: Efforts to increase research and education in palliative care.
  Report to congressional requesters (GAO/HEHS-98-128). Washington, DC:
  General Accounting Office. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  ED420832)

Electronic version of U.S. government report available from GPO Access database on the Web (aggregated database). See format in previous citation. Retrieved date of access, from name of agency via name of database: URL

Lewis, L., & Farris, E. (1996). Remedial education at higher education institutions in
  fall 1995 (GPO No: ED 1.328/5:R 28). Washington, DC: U. S. Department of
  Education. Retrieved June 20, 2002, from General Accounting Office Reports
  online via GPO Access: http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/
  aces160.shtml?/gao/index.html

U.S. government report available on government agency Web site.
Name of agency. (Year). Title of document (Report number). Retrieved date of access, from URL.

National Center for Higher Education. (2002). Statistical analysis report: Higher
  education (NCES 97-584). Retrieved June 22, 2002, from
  http://nces.ed.gov/pubs/97584.html

Back to top

ERIC ED Documents

General notes about ERIC ED documents:
General notes about ERIC ED documents. ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) documents with ED accession numbers are usually but not always unpublished resources. If they are unpublished, you include the ED number in the citation. Give the ERIC number in parentheses at the end of the entry unless the document was obtained full text online. In that case, the retrieval statement is last.

In cases of publications of limited circulation, the name and address of the publisher should be included in parentheses after the title and before the ERIC ED number. Only documents such as ERIC digests that are actually obtained full text from the ERIC database should include a retrieval statement with ERIC as the source. If journal articles or ERIC ED documents are indexed in ERIC but are retrieved in another database, the retrieval statement needs to cite the database where the full-text document was retrieved.

ERIC digest retrieved full text in ERIC.
Author. (Year). Title of document. Place of publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED######) Retrieved Month day, year, from Database Name database.

McKay, K., & Sorenson, B. (1999). How to use ERIC to search your special
  education topic: Update 1999. ERIC Digest E573.
  Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education.
  (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  ED434456) Retrieved December 12, 2001, from the ERIC database.

Unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved from a Web site.
(Cite as you would a printed conference paper that was not published, followed by) Retrieved date of access (Month day, year) Name of Database and ending with the word “database”.

Clay, D. (1998, April). WWW.2CHEAT.COM. Paper contributed to the Teaching in the
  Community Colleges Online Conference (3rd), Honolulu, HI. (ERIC Document
  Reproduction Service No. ED450824) Retrieved December 23, 2001, from
  http://leahi.kcc.hawaii.edu/org/tcom98/rooks.html

Unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC.
(Cite as you would a printed conference paper that was not published and that was indexed in ERIC.)

Parks, W., & Odom, S. L. (2000, June-July). Reflections on community-based
  inclusive preschools. Paper presented at the Head Start National Research
  Conference, Washington, DC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
  ED450938)

ERIC document with limited circulation information.
Author. (Year of publication.) If no author, title of document first [Medium info if appropriate]. (Year of publication if no author.) (Name and mailing address where can obtain publication.  A Web address can be used in place of or in addition to address. ) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDnumber)

Enhancing education through technology: New tools to close the achievement gap.
  Satellite town meeting #79: May 15, 2001. [Videotape]. (2001). (Available from
  ED Pubs, P.O. Box 1398, Jessup, MD, 20794-1398) (ERIC Document
  Reproduction No. ED435672)

Education Development Center. (2001). Districts on the move: Unified student service
  in Boston public schools: Building a continuum of services through standards-
  based reform. (National Institute for Urban School Improvement, Education
  Development Center, Inc., 55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA, 02458.) (ERIC
  Document Reproduction Service No. ED455329)

CD-ROM indexed in ERIC.
Author. (Year). Title of CD-ROM [Medium]. (Availability information) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDnumber)

Pacific Resources for Education and Learning. (2001). Art of the Pacific Islands [CD-
  ROM]. (Available from Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, 1099
  Alakea Street, 25th floor, Honolulu, HI 96813-4513) (ERIC Document Reproduction
  Service No. ED422222)

Government report indexed in ERIC.
Author. (Year). Title of report (Report number). Place of publication: Publisher or agency of publication. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. EDnumber) Include retrieval statement if the full text of the document was retrieved online.

Hoffman, L. M. (2001). Key statistics on public elementary and secondary schools
  and agencies: School year 1997-98. Survey report  (NCES-2001-304R).
  Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. (ERIC Document
  Reproduction Service No. ED452279) Retrieved December 23, 2001, from ERIC
  E-Subscribe database.

Data file, available from ERIC Clearinghouse Web site.
Name of clearinghouse. (Year). Title of document [Data file]. Available from place to obtain cited material Web site: URL

ERIC Clearinghouse for Assessment and Evaluation. (2002).  Data
  coordination/standard work groups status reports [Data file]. Available from
  National Center for Research Web site: http://cresst96.cse.ucla.edu/

Back to top

Proceedings

Published conference paper in conference proceedings.
Author. (Year,). Title of paper.  In Editor (first initial, last name) (Ed.) Title of conference proceedings  (page numbers). Place of publication: Publisher.

Gibson, C. C. (1995). Impact of the larger social context on the distance learner.
  International Council for Distance Education: One world many voices: Quality in
  open and distance learning (pp. 279-282). Chicago: Milton Keynes.

Conference paper published in a journal.
Format like journal article retrieved at online Web site.

Campbell, C. (1998, August). Quality assessment in distance education. Annual
  Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning, 507-510. Retrieved March 22,
  2002, from http://www.CDTL.org/index/disted/12333.htm

Unpublished conference paper.
Author. (Year, month). Title of paper.  Paper presented at name of conference, city, state.

Martins, J. R. (1999, April). Working with the terminally ill: An integrated theoretical
  model. Paper presented at the American Counseling Association World
  Conference, San Diego, CA.

Unpublished conference paper indexed in ERIC and retrieved in a full-text online database.
Author. (Year, month). Title of paper.  Paper presented at (name of conference), city, state. [Include ERIC ED number if indexed in ERIC and retrieval statement if retrieved online.]

Kelly, J. (1997, March). Effects of traditional and professional development school
  preservice training models on teacher attrition after three years. Paper presented
  at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
  Chicago, IL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED408256) Retrieved
  June 22, 2002, from ERIC E-Subscribe database.

Conference paper presented  at a virtual conference.
Author. (Year). Title of conference paper. Paper presented at the Name of conference. Retrieved date of access, from URL [There is no geographic location, page numbers, or month with year of publication.]

Steinbrecker, D. (2002). The care and feeding of an online  instructional site. Paper
  presented at the Distance Education virtual conference. Retrieved July 14, 2002,
  from http://www.umuc.au/ conference/ disted/care.html

Back to top

Legal Materials

Court decisions.

In the text of the document, cite the name of the case (Italicized) and the year of the decision. If more than one year is given, cite all years.  For additional information about how to cite legal references, consult the most recent edition of The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. (KF245 .B58)

Common abbreviations:

Cong. U.S. Congress
H.R. House of Representatives
S. Senate
Reg. Regulation
Res. Resolution
F. Federal Reporter
F.2d Federal Reporter, Second Series
F. Supp. Federal Supplement
U.S.C. United States Code
Cong. Rec. Congressional Record
Fed. Reg. Federal Register

Case

Name v. Name, Volume, Source Page (Court Date).

Wienhorst v. Stonebraker, 356 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1988).

- Ex.: Appealed case where decision was affirmed.

Hoeferkamp v. Bischoff, 471 F. Supp. 211 (D. Kan. 1988), aff’d, 727 F.2d 777 (9th Cir.
  1992).

Check the Bluebook for the proper forms to signal the various stages in a case’s history.

- Ex.: Unpublished case.

McDougall v. Riggs, No. 88-2109 (3rd Cir. March 8, 1949).

To cite to a particular page of a slip opinion (an opinion that was not published in a case reporter but is separately printed, use the format: slip op. at [page number].  You may also cite unreported cases found in electronic databases such as LEXIS/NEXIS Academic Universe or Westlaw rather than citing them as slip opinions.

- Ex.: Unreported decision found in LEXIS with record number.

Hemphill v. Bodart Corp., No. 77-9234, 1999 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 12223, at *2 (E.D. Pa
  May 23, 1999).

The name of the database and the record number is included along with sufficient information for others to find the case. The screen page numbers are preceded by an asterisk to differentiate between them and the page number of the slip opinion. Any paragraph numbers assigned are preceded by a paragraph symbol.

Legislative Materials.

- Ex.: Federal testimony.

Stem cell research: The pros and cons of cloning: Hearings before the
  Subcommittee on Bioethics, of the House Committee on Health, Education,
  Labor, and Pensions, 110th Cong., 35 (2000) (testimony of Carey Hunt).

- Ex.: Unenacted federal bills and resolutions.

Title [if relevant], bill or resolution number, xxx Cong., (Year).

Small Farm Reimbursement Act of 2000, H.R. 2063, 110th Cong. (2000).

Small Farm Reimbursement Act of 2000, S. 452, 110th Cong. (2000).

The version in the House of Representatives has H.R. and the bill number while the version of the bill in the Senate has S.

- Ex.: Enacted federal bills and resolutions.

xx Res. xxx, xxx Cong., Volume Source Page (Year) (enacted).

S. Res. 167, 110th Cong., 127 Cong. Rec. 3432 (2000) (enacted).

Administrative and Executive Materials.

Use the Bluebook’s  Rule 14:

-Ex.: Federal Regulation.

Title/Number, Volume Source § xxx (Year).

Federal Small Business Regulations for Acquisitions by the National Parks
  Administration, 55 Fed. Reg. 66,343 (Jan. 11, 2000) (to be codified at 66 C.F.R.
  pt. 1).

-Ex.: Executive Order.

Exec. Order No. xxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year).

Executive Order No. 22,432 6 C.F.R. 771 (1991-1995), reprinted as amended in 6
  U.S.C. 301 app. at 5-5-09 (2002).

Patents.

Include the inventor or inventors to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Borwin, G. F. (1998). U.S. Patent No. 178,323. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and
  Trademark Office.

Back to top

Other Resources

Interview - conducted by the researcher.
Interviews are personal communications, which are only cited in the text of the paper, not in the reference list.

APA does not recommend including personal communications because of the difficulty of recovering them at a later time.

Film or video  recording.
Name of the producer (Producer), & Name of the director (Director). (Year of release). Title [Medium]. Distributor.

Jarre, K., Carr, P. (Producers), & Sommers, S. (Director). (1999). The mummy
  [Videotape]. MCA Universal Home Video.

Television program – broadcast.
Producer’s name (Producer). (Broadcast date). Title of the program [Television program]. Station or viewing location: name of the station or network.

Garwood, S. (Producer). (1998, December 31). EastEnders [Television program].
  Clarksville, MD: BBC America.

Manuscript in progress or submitted for publication but not yet accepted.
Author. (Year). Title of document. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Lucio, L, & Tuñón, J. T. (2001). Designing library instruction for international online

  students. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Back to top


The ASLRITC is a joint-use facility between Nova Southeastern University and the Broward Cty. Board of County Commissioners

Patron Portals :: Electronic Resources :: Services :: About Us :: Help :: Home
Alvin Sherman Library, Research, and Information Technology Center
3100 Ray Ferrero Jr. Blvd. · Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314-1013
Contact the library online or by phone (954-262-4600)
Copyright © 2010 · Webmaster · Equipment and Service Status
Last updated: 08/28/2009